Jumat, 08 April 2011

Ulat Bulu di Probolinggo Fenomena Baru



JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Peneliti Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Institut Pertanian Bogor, Aunu Rauf PhD, mengatakan, hama ulat bulu tanaman mangga di Probolinggo, Jawa Timur, adalah jenis baru yang belum pernah terekam keberadaannya di Indonesia. Dalam ranah konservasi biologi, hewan semacam itu terindikasi disebut sebagai spesies alien yang bisa berpengaruh terhadap ekosistem yang ada.
"Dalam kepustakaan hama tanaman mangga, hama jenis ini belum pernah tercatat," ungkap Aunu yang menyelesaikan studi doktoral dalam bidang ilmu serangga (entomologi) di University of Wisconsin Madison, Amerika Serikat, Rabu (6/4/2011).
Meskipun demikian, ia membantah bahwa hama ulat bulu tersebut adalah spesies baru. "Bukan spesies baru ya, hanya hama ini belum pernah ditemukan sebelumnya. Jadi ini hanya pertama kalinya menyerang," tuturnya.
Ia sebelumnya memperkirakan bahwa ulat bulu tersebut adalah spesies Lymantria marginata. Spesies tersebut dikenali dari motif sayapnya yang berbeda antara jantan dan betina saat dewasa. Jantan bersayap gelap, sedangkan betina bersayap putih berbintik.
Beberapa ahli sempat menduga bahwa hama yang menyerang Probolinggoi tersebut adalah Dasychira inclusa. Namun, ia mengatakan, "Ini lain. Kalau Dasychira inclusa morfologinya tidak begitu. Hama Probolinggo ini warna sayapnya putih."
Beberapa hari lalu, Aunu baru kembali dari Probolinggo untuk pengambilan sampel ulat. "Untuk sekarang baru sedang proses pemeriksaan dahulu untuk diidentifikasi jenisnya," katanya.
Ia mengatakan, serangan hama di Probolinggo adalah faktor alam. Pesatnya populasi ulat bulu yang diikuti serangan ke tanaman mangga mungkin terjadi karena predator spesies ini, seperti burung atau serangga lain, berkurang populasinya.

Dampak Cuaca dan Gangguan Ekosistem
Jakarta, Kompas - Fenomena serangan ulat bulu di permukiman dan lahan pertanian desa-desa di Probolinggo, Jawa Timur, mengindikasikan terganggunya keseimbangan ekosistem setempat. Pola tanam monokultur, hilangnya predator dan parasit, serta cuaca ekstrem menyebabkan populasi herbivora itu tak terkontrol.
Demikian disampaikan Kepala Pusat Biologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) Siti Nuramaliati Prijono dan ahli serangga LIPI, Hari Sutrisno, serta Asisten Deputi Kehati dan Pengendalian Kerusakan Lahan Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Antung Deddy Radiansyah, Selasa (29/3).
Siti, yang juga ahli burung, menjelaskan, penebangan pohon dan perburuan burung menjadi salah satu sebab jumlah burung pemakan ulat berkurang. Dampaknya adalah populasi ulat tidak mengalami tekanan alami.
Selain itu, ledakan populasi ulat juga bisa dipicu kondisi cuaca. Saat kondisi panas, kupu-kupu bertelur hingga ratusan butir. Saat hujan, telur tersebut menetas bersama-sama.
Hari Sutrisno menjelaskan, cuaca panas mendorong makhluk hidup melepaskan karbon dioksida dalam jumlah lebih besar. Karbon dioksida yang melimpah merangsang tanaman giat berfotosintesis. Ulat meresponnya dengan menambah porsi makan.
Hari menyebut parasit ulat, yaitu lebah tabuhan, dapat mengontrol laju populasi ulat. Saat ini, populasi lebah kecil tersebut jauh berkurang karena ekosistemnya tertekan pertanian intensif.
Lebah pengisap madu di rumput liar itu mati karena penggunaan pestisida antihama. ”Ini konsekuensi manusia yang tidak menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem,” katanya.
Kontrol lebah tabuhan terhadap ulat bulu, menurut Hari, lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan hewan predator burung, yang memiliki sifat pemilih makanan. Keberadaan bulu-bulu pada ulat mengurangi selera makan burung.
Hari menjelaskan, ciri berbulu pada ulat yang menyerang desa di Probolinggo menunjukkan spesiesnya dari famili Lymantriidae. Bulu ulat menyebabkan iritasi pada permukaan kulit luar karena kandungan biokimia pada bagian ujungnya. Ini menyebabkan rasa gatal dan panas.
Terkait penanganan ledakan ulat, Hari menyarankan petugas hati-hati saat menggunakan pestisida berbahan kimia. Ia khawatir pestisida juga mematikan serangga lainnya.
Antung Deddy belum banyak mendapatkan informasi dan laporan kasus ledakan populasi ulat itu. Namun, ia memprediksi salah satu penyebabnya pola tanam monokultur.
Pola tanam itu menurunkan keanekaragaman hayati lingkungan. Dampaknya, hewan/tanaman pengendali spesies tertentu musnah.
Antung menyarankan pola tanam dikembalikan ke heterogen. ”Tanaman heterogen lebih tahan serangan hama daripada monokultur,” katanya. (ICH)

Caterpillar hair in Probolinggo New Phenomenon
JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - Researcher Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Aunu Rauf PhD, said the caterpillar pests of mango plant in Probolinggo, East Java, is a new type that has never recorded its presence in Indonesia. In the realm of conservation biology, such animal is indicated as an alien species that could affect the existing ecosystems.
"In literature mango crop pests, pests of this type have not been recorded," said Aunu who completed doctoral studies in the field of insects (entomology) at the University of Wisconsin Madison, USA, on Wednesday (06/04/2011).
However, he denied that pest caterpillars that are new species. "It's not a new species yes, just this pest had never encountered before. So this is just the first time to attack," he said.
He had earlier estimated that it is a species of caterpillar Lymantria marginata. Species are recognized from a different wing patterns between males and females as adults. Dark winged males, while female white-spotted wings.
Some experts suspect that the pest had attacked Probolinggoi is Dasychira inclusa. However, he said, "This is another. If Dasychira inclusa morphology is not so. Pest Probolinggo is the color of white wings."
A few days ago, just returned from Probolinggo Aunu for sampling caterpillar. "For now the new is the process of checking in advance to identify the type," he said.
He said the pest attack in Probolinggo is a natural factor. The rapid population of caterpillars that followed the attack on mango plants may occur due to predator species, such as birds or other insects, reduced the population.

Impact of Weather and Ecosystem Disturbance
Jakarta, Kompas - The phenomenon of caterpillars attack the settlements and agricultural villages in Probolinggo, East Java, indicating disruption of the balance of local ecosystems. Monoculture cropping patterns, loss of predators and parasites, as well as extreme weather causing herbivore populations were not controlled.
This was conveyed by Head of Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Siti Nuramaliati Prijono and insect experts LIPI, Sutrisno Day, and Assistant Deputy Biodiversity and Land Degradation Control Ministry of Environment Antung Deddy Radiansyah, Tuesday (29 / 3).
Siti, who is also a bird expert, explains, felling trees and hunting of birds to be one reason the number of bird-eating caterpillars reduced. The impact is the population of caterpillars is not experiencing the natural pressure.
In addition, the caterpillar population explosions can also be triggered by weather conditions. When conditions are hot, the butterflies lay eggs up to hundreds of grains. When it rains, these eggs hatch together.
Sutrisno Day explains, hot weather pushed living things emit carbon dioxide in greater numbers. Carbon dioxide is abundant stimulate vigorous plants photosynthesize. Caterpillars responded by increasing the size of the meal.
Day called the parasitic worm, which bee wasp, to control the caterpillar population growth. Currently, a small bee populations are much reduced because the ecosystem is stressed intensive agriculture.
Sucker honey bees in the weeds to die because of pesticide use antihama. "It's the human consequences of not maintaining the balance of ecosystems," he said.  Bees control hornets against caterpillars, according to Day, more efficiently than predators of birds, which have properties of food voters. The presence of hairs on the caterpillars to reduce the bird's appetite.
Day explains, characteristic hairy caterpillar that attacks on villages in Probolinggo indicate the species of the family Lymantriidae. Caterpillar hairs cause irritation to the outer skin surface because the content of biochemistry at the edges. This causes intense itching and heat.
Related explosion handling caterpillars, Day suggests officer careful when using pesticides made from chemicals. He worried about pesticides also kill other insects.
Antung Deddy not much to get information and report cases of caterpillar population explosions. However, he predicts one cause monoculture cropping.  Cropping patterns that reduce the environmental biodiversity. The impact, animal / plant control certain species extinct.
Antung suggested cropping pattern is returned to the heterogeneous. "Heterogeneous Plants more resistant to pests than monoculture," he said. (ICH) 

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