Kamis, 03 Maret 2011

Harimau Pernah berkeliaran di Batavia



Jakarta yang sekarang adalah Kota Metropolitan, ternyata pada abad ke-16 hanya sebuah kampung kecil. Hal ini diketahui dari sumber-sumber kolonial dan juga nama-nama jalan atau kawasan di Jakarta modern yang memakai kata hutan, kebon, dan rawa.
Banyak hewan pernah berkeliaran bebas di Batavia, sebagaimana tercermin dari nama-nama Rawabadak, Rawabuaya, Gang Kancil, dan Jaga Monyet. Bahkan, menurut laporan dari abad ke-17, hewan liar seperti harimau masih ditemukan di sekitar hutan-hutan Batavia.
Mungkin yang paling banyak adalah buaya dan badak. Sebuah laporan menyebutkan buaya sering kali terlihat di beberapa sungai dalam kota. Bahkan pada tahun 1692 tiga orang laki-laki yang baru saja tiba dari Eropa hampir saja diterkam buaya besar yang lapar. Untung saja, mereka sempat menyelamatkan diri dengan cara memanjat tiang gantungan di dekat sungai tersebut.
Sebelumnya pada tahun 1659, 14 orang penebang kayu dimangsa harimau di daerah Kota sekarang. Beberapa budak yang bekerja di daerah Ancol juga mengalami nasib serupa. Menurut laporan A Herport, seorang Swiss, pada 1662, seorang Jawa yang sedang berjaga diterkam seekor harimau. Orang itu dibawa lari.
”Waktu kami tembak, harimau melepaskan kawan kita itu, tetapi dia terluka begitu parah sehingga mati,” kata Herport (Tempat-tempat Bersejarah di Jakarta, hal. 199).
Dia menambahkan laporannya demikian, ”Pada malam itu juga, kami masih melihat harimau-harimau lari karena mata-mata mereka menyala. Tetapi karena tembakan kami, mereka menjauh. Pada hari ketiga kami kembali ke sungai dan sepanjang hari menuju ke hulu. Di sepanjang kedua tepian, kami melihat banyak harimau dan badak...serta beberapa buaya”.
Pada 1762 pemerintah memberikan hadiah kepada para pemburu yang membunuh 27 ekor harimau dan macan kumbang di sekitar Batavia. Laporan selanjutnya mengatakan, sebelum Perang Dunia II orang masih pergi berburu babi hutan di sebelah Timur bekas bandar udara Kemayoran. Selama masa pendudukan Jepang, buaya masih tampak di beberapa sungai.
Adanya harimau, badak, dan buaya di Batavia juga pernah didokumentasikan dalam bentuk lukisan. Misalnya lukisan dua orang pribumi sedang menggotong mayat seekor harimau diiringi seorang sinyo Belanda.
Habitat yang semakin terdesak, membuat hewan-hewan itu menghilang, sebelum akhirnya punah dari tanah Batavia. Seharusnya lenyapnya harimau, badak, dan buaya dari Jakarta menjadi pelajaran yang berharga, namun tetap terulang di bumi kita karena keserakahan kita sendiri. (Djulianto Susantio, pemerhati sejarah dan budaya)


Ever tiger loose in Batavia
Jakarta Metropolitan City now is, it turns out in the 16th century only a small village. It is known from colonial sources and also the names of streets or areas in modern Jakarta used the word forest, garden, and bog.
Many animals once roamed freely in Batavia, as evident from the names Rawabadak, Rawabuaya, Gang Kancil, and Keep the monkey. In fact, according to reports from the 17th century, wild animals like tigers are still found around the forests of Batavia.
Perhaps the most are the crocodiles and rhinoceros. A report says the crocodile is often seen in some rivers in the city.
Even in the year 1692 three men who had just arrived from Europe almost pounced on a large crocodile that hungry. Fortunately, they could save themselves by climbing the gallows in the nearby river.
Earlier in the year 1659, 14 people were devoured by tigers loggers in the area of the City now. Some of the slaves who worked in Ancol area also suffered a similar fate. A Herport According to reports, a Switzerland, in 1662, a Javanese who was watching a tiger pounced. The man was taken away.
"When we shoot, the tiger let go of our friend, but he was injured so badly that death," said Herport (Historic Places in Jakarta, p.. 199).
He added that such reports, "At night, we still see the tigers run away because their eyes light up. But because of our shot, they stay away. On the third day we returned to the river and headed upstream all day. Along both edges, we see a lot of tigers and rhinos ... and a few alligators. "
In 1762 the government gave prizes to the hunters who killed 27 animals tigers and panthers in the vicinity of Batavia.
The report goes on to say, before World War II, people still go hunting wild boar in the east of the former Kemayoran airport. During the Japanese occupation, the alligator was still visible in some rivers.
The existence of tigers, rhinos, and crocodiles in Batavia also been documented in the form of painting. For example the painting of two indigenous people were carrying the body of a tiger, accompanied by a Dutch sinyo.
Habitat is increasingly desperate, making the animals disappeared, before finally disappeared from the land of Batavia. Should the disappearance of tigers, rhinos, and crocodiles from Jakarta became a valuable lesson, but still repeated in our world because of our own greed. (Djulianto Susantio, observers of the history and culture)


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